A translator puts a text written in one language (the source language) into another language (the target language) in such a way that the message remains the same. The skill of translation lies in retaining all elements of the message while formulating the text in such a way that it sounds like an original in the target language.
Specialist fields of translation
The following are some of the most common types or fields of translation:
- Technical translation: Documents of a technical or scientific nature for multinational companies, research bodies and government departments
- Service translation: Translation for organisational purposes, such as corporate publications, business documentation, annual reports, legislation and government documentation
- Commercial translation: Financial texts and legal documents for the banking sector, the commercial and industrial sectors and government departments
- Media translation: Press material for a variety of newspaper and magazine concerns as well as government departments
- Literary translation: Novels, children’s books and non-fiction literature this is generally considered to be a highly demanding discipline because of the artistic touch that is needed
- Advertising translation: Advertisements for newspapers, magazines, radio, television, etc. – likewise a very demanding discipline because of the creative work involved
- Television translation: Mainly television plays, but also documentary programmes
- Sworn translation: Documents for official or legal purposes (see the page on sworn translation)
Prospects for translators
At present the primary need locally is for translators between the official languages. The demand for translation in the official indigenous languages is growing. The need for translation in European languages such as German, French, Portuguese and Russian is changing as South Africa’s stature in the international arena grows.
The state is one of the main employers of translators in South Africa, through the National Language Service, the SA National Defence Force, Parliament, the Department of Justice and the provincial governments. In the private sector banks, insurance companies, multinational companies (such as oil, computer and pharmaceutical companies), publishing firms, trade unions and translation agencies make use of translation services.
Key characteristics of translators
Good translators have the following characteristics:
- An outstanding command of the target language (preferably the translator’s mother tongue), so as to produce a translation in an appropriate style and in idiomatically and grammatically faultless language
- A thorough knowledge of the source language, so that the translation conveys the same message as that contained in the source text
- Knowledge of the relevant field of specialisation (e.g. law, medicine, agriculture, etc.) to ensure a grasp of the subject matter of a text
- A sound general knowledge
- Application to detail (e.g. doing research to find the right term or turn of phrase factual accuracy layout of the source text)
Good translators have all the abilities and qualities mentioned above, and also keep learning about their areas of specialisation, stay up to date on developments in the languages in which they work, have a broad general knowledge and keep abreast of general affairs in politics, economics, sport, etc. They improve their skills in any way possible by reading widely, attending seminars related to their profession, and acquiring and using as many resources as possible.